DOI 10.37749/2308-9636-2021-3(219)-4

O. Tolstenko, P. M. Pribluda, M. V. Vlasenko. Problems of euthanasia: the case law of the European Court of Human Rights.

The medical field is quite complex and has a high level of conflict, so there are often problems with the peculiarities of the end of life. Thus, the article analyzes the possible options for ending life, taking into account the will of both the immediate person and his relatives. Based on the analysis of the case law of the European Court of Human Rights, the problematic issues related to the ways of ending the lives of individuals are outlined. The definition of «euthanasia» is also given and the appropriate classification is given, the criteria of which are the direct participation and consent of the person in respect of whom they intend to carry out the above procedure. It is established that the «right to life» cannot be interpreted in a negative aspect, the state has a positive obligation to protect human life and health, and this right cannot be interpreted as a death permit. In addition, the issue of stopping treatment that supports vital functions of the body is revealed. It is determined that the use of passive euthanasia is possible in cases provided by law. The factors and criteria that states should be guided by when using passive euthanasia are analyzed. In addition, it is established that the state has an obligation not only to refrain from harming individuals, but also to take all urgent and possible measures to protect persons and provide them with appropriate treatment. The purpose of the article is to get acquainted with the concept, types and methods of euthanasia. The basic decisions of the ECHR in the context of this issue are indicated, and a description of the latter is given. Summing up the study, it should be noted that the problem of interruption of life remains unified. The ECHR stated that the State had no negative obligations in the context of Article 2 of the ECHR and therefore had no right to die. The ECHR, in turn, gives wide discretion to states and only undertakes to monitor the legality of passive euthanasia, which in turn can be enshrined in the law of the country concerned. States, refraining from the introduction of active euthanasia, should take all possible measures to maintain and protect persons and provide them with the necessary treatment.

Key words: European Court of Human Rights, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, euthanasia, the right to life, the right to adequate and necessary medical services.



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