UDC 341

DOI 10.37749/2308-9636-2020-2(206)-2

M. V. Zhuravel,

Bachelor of Laws Yaroslav Mudryi National Law

University, Ukraine, LL.M in International

Corporate Governance and Financial Regulation,

University of Warwick, United Kingdom


To my teacher Mr Philip Rees with gratitude for his continued support

over the years and his faith in me





«No person, organisation, or computer can ever be 100% secure. Someone with the patience, money and skill can break into even the most protected systems».

(Scott Shackelford, Associate Professor of Business Law and Ethics, Indiana University, USA1).


Dependency on global cyberspace is rapidly increasing nowadays. Virtual reality generates opportunities for enterprises, governments and individuals; however it also poses significant threats to security on different levels including the national level, whereby key state infrastructures can become a target of cyber attacks. This was seen during the Covid-19 pandemic when the healthcare system in a number of countries experienced cyber threats, which in the example of the Czech Republic, led to severe disruption of the medical processes in a hospital. Thus, cybercrime can cause detrimental effects not only to individuals or business entities, but also to a large group of stakeholders. Infinite cyberspace, the anonymous character of cyber attackers, advances in technology and a lack of cybersecurity measures in place — these all give cybercrime a sophisticated and aggressive nature and as a result, make us more vulnerable to it. This article will consider different categories of cybercrime, namely, crimes against the person; crimes against property, and crimes against the government, drawing examples from real life cases. This will be followed by an exploration of the methods which should be employed in the fight against cybercrime. In addition, the EU legislative framework will be considered as an example of legal measures against cybercrime.

Key words: Internet, cyberspace, cybercrime, cyber attack, cyber threat, cybersecurity, ransomware, cyber terrorism, European Union legal framework, NIS Directive, ENISA, ways.


1 Scott Shackelford, ‘Take these 5 critical steps to protect yourself from cybercrime’ Fast Company (17 August 2019) <https://www.fastcompany.com/90391332/take-these-5-critical-steps-to-protectyourself-from-cybercrime> accessed 28 March 2020.


B i b l i o g r a p h y

EU Legislation

Council Decision (CFSP) 2019/797 of 17 May 2019 concerning restrictive measures against cyber-attacks threatening the Union or its Member States ST/7299/2019/INIT <http://data.europa.eu/eli/dec/2019/797/oj> accessed 10 April 2020.

Council Regulation (EU) 2019/796 of 17 May 2019 concerning restrictive measures against cyber-attacks threatening the Union or its Member States ST/7302/2019/INIT <http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2019/796/oj> accessed 10 April 2020.

Directive (EU) 2016/1148 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 2016 concerning measures for a high common level of security of network and information systems across the Union (NIS Directive) <http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/2016/1148/oj > accessed 10 April 2020.

Regulation (EU) 2019/881 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 April 2019 on ENISA (the European Union Agency for Cybersecurity) and on information and communications technology cybersecurity certification and repealing Regulation (EU) No 526/2013 (Cybersecurity Act) (Text with EEA relevance) PE/86/2018/REV/1 <http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2019/881/oj> accessed 7 April 2020.

Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council on 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation) <http://data.europa.eu/elireg/2016/679/oj> accessed 10 April 2020.

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